All about the thyroid gland in men diseases, symptoms and treatment
AHealthyMan specialists claim that thyroid hormones in a man determine character. Practice has proved that knowing the content of iodothyronines in the blood, it is possible to predict a person’s behavior in a given situation. Let’s try to figure out what significance the normal operation of this mysterious organ of internal secretion has for the modern macho, how it affects potency, what threatens a representative of the strong half of humanity with hypo – and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland.
The main functions of the thyroid gland
The endocrine system functions as a single mechanism. The intake of biologically active substances into the blood is regulated by the pituitary gland. The thyroid gland produces two types of hormones in both men and women: iodized – thyroxine, triiodothyronine and thyrocalcitonin (calcitonin).
Iodothyronines in the body:
- affect tissue growth and differentiation;
- increase enzyme activity;
- stimulate basal metabolism;
- enhance oxidative processes;
- increase oxygen uptake and glucose consumption;
- reduce glycogen stores;
- accelerate the oxidation of fats;
- change the autonomic regulation of internal organs;
- increase the excitability of the nervous system;
- reduce the ability of blood to coagulate;
Calcitonin is an antagonist of parathyroid hormone. Its level in the blood increases in pregnant women, as well as in people after fractures at the time of intensive bone fusion. Under the influence of thyrocalcitonin in the body:
- the level of calcium and phosphorus in the blood decreases;
- their excretion in the urine increases;
- bone demineralization is inhibited;
- gastrin production is stimulated.
Until the middle of the last century, there was no reliable scientific data on the effect of thyroid hormones on potency. Currently, it has been proven that iodothyronines:
- regulate testicular maturation in the prepubescent period;
- stimulate spermatogenesis and testosterone production;
- have an effect on sexual desire.
With an excess of estrogens, there is an increase in the sensitivity of the pituitary gland to thyroid-stimulating hormone. Hyper- and hypofunction of the thyroid gland leads to morphological and functional disorders of the male reproductive system.
Signs of thyroid dysfunction
Thyroid diseases occur with excessive, reduced, normal hormone production. The intensity of synthesis does not always directly depend on the pathology of the gland itself. Such disorders are called secondary by endocrinologists. They can be caused by pituitary diseases, iodine deficiency, diabetes, obesity.
Signs of hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism is characterized by deterioration of the general condition – lethargy, chilliness, apathy, drowsiness. The lack of iodothyronines is accompanied by the following disorders:
- Cardiovascular changes – decrease in blood pressure, bradycardia.
- Symptoms of digestive deterioration are a tendency to constipation, lack of appetite.
- Dryness of the skin and mucous membranes.
- Increase in body weight.
- On the part of the excretory system, there is a decrease in the frequency of urination with a simultaneous tendency to edema.
The lack of thyroid hormones in men is sometimes associated with hypogonadism – a lack or absence of endogenous testosterone.
Signs of hyperthyroidism
Excess of iodothyronines entails weight loss, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, tremor of the extremities, ecophthalmos, diarrhea, osteoporosis. Patients with hyperthyroidism are irritable, complain of insomnia, inability to concentrate. Symptoms worsen in the hot season. The increased content of thyroid hormones in men leads to the development of gynecomastia – hypertrophy of breast tissue.
Prevention of diseases
Prevention of hormonal disorders of the thyroid gland includes the entire list of rules of a healthy lifestyle, namely, the fight against physical inactivity, rational nutrition, getting rid of excess weight and bad habits, compliance with personal hygiene rules, strengthening immunity. An important role is played by the ability to cope with stress through self-training, yoga, and all kinds of hobbies.
In addition to general recommendations, it is important to remember about the specific risks of failure of the normal functioning of the thyroid gland:
- Prolonged exposure to scorching sunlight can serve as a trigger for the emergence of diseases of this organ, so you need to sunbathe so as not to get an excess of ultraviolet light.
- Iodine deficiency in food is a risk factor for goiter. Residents of certain regions need to eat foods rich in this trace element. Iodized salt should be stored in sealed packages, and e should be added to dishes at the final stage of culinary processing.
- Certain medications are able to change the normal content of the thyroid-stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland in the blood, which can lead to a violation of the thyroid gland. Therefore, you do not need to self-medicate.
For people suffering from chronic diseases, timely medical examinations and examinations will help to avoid not only complications of the underlying pathology, but also prevent the occurrence of disorders of the endocrine system, including thyroid diseases.
The level of androgens changes throughout life. The norm is considered to be a decrease in testosterone production in men over thirty years of age. The secretion of sex hormones is affected by heredity, the presence of chronic pathology, physical activity, stress.
Hormonal imbalance is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- violation of reproductive function;
- decrease in working capacity;
- change in body weight;
- cardiovascular manifestations;
- decrease glucose tolerance;
- dermatological manifestations.
In men of respectable and respectable age, the lack of androgens is most often due to the natural extinction of testicular function. Young people have a violation of the pituitary and thyroid gland, bad habits, infections, injuries, exposure to toxins, chronic diseases.
The maximum content of thyroid-stimulating hormone, therefore, the lowest T3 and T4, is observed from two to four in the morning, as well as from six to eight in the morning. From seventeen to nineteen days on the contrary: the highest concentrations of iodothyronines in the blood, the minimum – TSH. If a person is forced to sacrifice a night’s sleep, this mechanism fails, which can also have a negative indirect effect on testosterone secretion.
How do I get tested?
An analysis for thyroid hormones will confirm or exclude a change in the function of this organ. Modern laboratories offer to determine the content in the blood:
- thyroid-stimulating (TSH) ;
- thyroxine (T4);
- triiodothyronine (T3).
TSH is produced by the pituitary gland. T3, T4 – thyroid gland. In most cases, there is no need to specify the blood content of all three biologically active substances. This is due to the fact that their products are interconnected. The level of T3 and T4 is inversely proportional to the concentration of TSH.
In order to obtain a reliable result, it is necessary to adhere to the following simple rules:
- To donate blood from a vein from eight to eleven o’clock in the morning.
- Refrain from eating 6 hours before the examination.
- Do not smoke, do not drink alcoholic beverages, do not overdo it in the gym for at least three days before the analysis.
- Refuse to take medications. When it is impossible – notify your attending physician.
If the patient underwent examinations using contrast agents, it should be remembered that this can also distort the reliability of the result. Therefore, it is important to coordinate the procedure for conducting diagnostic procedures with a specialist.
It is usually enough to pass an analysis for TSH and T4 to detect thyroid dysfunction, but sometimes clarifying the diagnosis requires additional studies – the determination of specific antibody proteins. There are antibodies to thyroperoxidase, to thyroglobulin, to the TSH receptor. The level of calcitonin in the blood is considered a marker of thyroid cancer. The volume of tests is determined by the endocrinologist.
The norms of thyroid hormones themselves T3, T4, calcitonin in both men and the weaker sex do not differ. The figures may vary depending on the type of apparatus on which the research is carried out, the type of reagents used. Laboratories indicate on the results form the optimal concentration of each substance. But international medical protocols have approved “reference” indicators, which should be guided by.
The norms of thyroid hormones are presented in the table:
You should not decipher the results of the tests yourself. The endocrinologist does not make a conclusion about the function of the thyroid gland based on the content of one biologically active substance. The conclusion on the state of the hormonal background for a full-fledged final diagnosis is carried out on the basis of a comprehensive assessment of several indicators.
A disease characterized by thyroid hyperplasia due to iodine deficiency. The deficiency can be absolute (low amount of iodine in food and water) and relative (decreased absorption of this chemical element in the intestine, a genetic defect in the synthesis of iodothyronines, a violation of iodine uptake by the thyroid gland, as a result of taking medications or toxic substances).